Co-developer of the 3Rs concept dies aged 81

Professor William Russell, who originally developed the concept of the 3Rs with his colleague Rex Burch, sadly died on 27 July 2006 at the age of 81.

Lord Turnberg, chair of the NC3Rs Board, said: "In 1959, Professor William Russell and Rex Burch published the book 'The principles of humane experimental technique', in which the 3Rs were first introduced. Since then the principles of replacement, refinement and reduction have become the bedrock of ethical and responsible use of animals in scientific research."

"Professor Russell continued to develop his ideas throughout his life and was still publishing papers until recently. The NC3Rs was honoured to have him as a guest at our most recent Annual Stakeholder Meeting in January."

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