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NC3Rs: National Centre for the Replacement Refinement & Reduction of Animals in Research
Infrastructure grant

Training and teaching resources to underpin implementation of refinement of in vivo studies

Professor Paul Flecknell giving a speech on a podium

At a glance

Award date
October 2013 - September 2016
Grant amount
Principal investigator
Professor Paul Flecknell


  • Professor Megan Quentin-Baxter
Newcastle University


  • Refinement




This project aims to provide training through web-based tutorials and other resources on best practice in the refinement of animal experiments.


Over the last decade there has been a substantial increase in the understanding of the factors that can cause pain and distress in laboratory animals. There are new methods available for assessing animal welfare, and a better understanding of how procedures can be refined to prevent suffering.

In order for this knowledge to have a real impact, the information needs to be disseminated to researchers and animal care staff as widely as possible and in an easily accessible format. However, effective dissemination and implementation has so far been difficult to achieve.

This project will develop web resources to underpin effective initial and continued training of individuals involved in animal research, enhancing uptake of refinements and improving animal welfare across many scientific disciplines.