ARRIVE: Animal Research Reporting In Vivo Experiments

The ARRIVE (Animal Research: Reporting of In Vivo Experiments) guidelines are intended to improve the reporting of research using animals – maximising information published and minimising unnecessary studies.

 

The ARRIVE guidelines and a range of additional resources to support their use and disemination can be found on our resource page.

 

Background

The ARRIVE guidelines were developed as part of an NC3Rs initiative to improve standards of reporting and ensure that the data from animal experiments can be fully evaluated and utilised. The guidelines are aimed primarily at scientists writing up their research for publication and for those who are involved in peer review.

The guidelines were published in the online journal PLOS Biology in June 2010 and are currently endorsed by scientific journals, funding bodies, universities and learned societies. Developed in consultation with the scientific community, including researchers, statisticians, journal editors and funders, the guidelines consist of a 20-point checklist of the essential information that should be included in publications reporting animal research.

Previous work by the NC3Rs showed that many publications reporting publicly-funded animal research from the UK and US lacked key information on how the study was designed, conducted and analysed, which could limit their value in informing future scientific studies and policy.

Journals

Journals are invited to endorse the ARRIVE guidelines to improve the standard of reporting of animal research in the scientific literature. Journals can endorse the ARRIVE guidelines by incorporating the guidelines into their Instructions for Authors or Editorial Policies to ensure authors are aware of the guidelines when reporting animal research.

To improve the impact of the ARRIVE guidelines we encourage journals to actively implement the guidelines. To assist in this process, an ARRIVE checklist is available to download. The checklist should be completed by the author and can be used during the review process to ensure published research is of the highest standard.

Journals that have republished the guidelines:

Journals endorsing the ARRIVE guidelines:

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Funders

The UK's major bioscience funders have incorporated adherence to the guidelines into a revised version of 'Responsibility in the use of animals in bioscience research: Expectations of the major research council and charitable funding bodies', which was originally published in May 2008.

The Chief Executives of the three main UK bioscience research funders (MRC, BBSRC and Wellcome Trust) have written an open letter to the Vice-Chancellors, Principals of universities and Heads of research institutes urging them to ensure that their scientists make use of the ARRIVE guidelines.

Funders endorsing the ARRIVE guidelines:

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Universities

Universities can play an important role in improving the reporting of animal research by supporting the ARRIVE guidelines. As the foundation for scientific advancement and developers of future research leaders, universities can encourage research staff and students to use the guidelines by including the ARRIVE guidelines in:

  • Institutional policies on animal research: Encourage employees to publish in line with the ARRIVE guidelines (subject to editorial policies). The major funders of bioscience research (e.g. Wellcome Trust, MRC and BBSRC) have endorsed the ARRIVE guidelines; compliance with the guidelines is a condition of grant funding.
  • Public statement: Show support for the ARRIVE guidelines through an online public statement, to be included in codes for research ethics or policy on animal use in scientific procedures.
  • Licensee Training Courses: Provide information during training courses for project and personal licence holders. A presentation covering the key aspects of the ARRIVE guidelines can be found below.
  • Research training courses: Include information about the ARRIVE guidelines on research skills training courses for MSc students, PhD students and early career researchers e.g. courses for experimental design, research statistics, writing for publications.
  • Internal communication: Provide details and a link to the ARRIVE guidelines in internal communications for research staff conducting animal experiments e.g. research guidelines, best practice guides. 

The AWERB (Animal Welfare & Ethical Review Body) should provide a useful platform for dissemination and uptake of the guidelines across the Research institution.

Universities endorsing the ARRIVE guidelines:

 

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Learned Societies

Learned societies can play an important role in improving the reporting of animal research by supporting the ARRIVE guidelines. By disseminating the ARRIVE guidelines to their members, societies can encourage a wider scientific community to adopt the guidelines and promote a high standard of reporting of animal experiments in their field of research.

Learned societies supporting the ARRIVE guidelines:

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Publications and editorials mentioning the ARRIVE guidelines:

2014

  • Baker D, Lidster K, Sottomayor A et al. (2014) Two years later: Journals are not yet enforcing the ARRIVE guidelines on reporting standards for pre-clinical animal studies. PLOS Biology 12(1):e1001756. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1001756
  • Burdge GC (2014) Improving standards for reporting studies involving humans and experimental animals in the British Journal of Nutrition and in the Journal of Nutritional ScienceBritish Journal of Nutrition 112(9): 1423-1424. doi:10.1017/S0007114514002372
  • Eisen JA, Ganley E, MacCallum CJ (2014). Open science and reporting animal studies: who's accountable? PLOS Biology 12(1):e1001757 doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1001757
  • Hirst JA, Howick J, Aronson JK et al. (2014). The need for randomisation in animal trials: an overview of systematic reviews. PLOS One 9(6):e98856. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0098856 
  • Kilkenny C, Browne WJ, Cuthill IC et al. (2014). Improving bioscience research reporting: the ARRIVE guidelines for reporting animal research. Animals 4(1):35-44 doi:10.3390/ani4010035 
  • Pearson J (2014). Use of animals in research and reporting of animal experiments - The need for improvement. Vascular Pharmacology 62(1):1-2. doi:10.1016/j.vph.2014.05.009
  • Pound P, Bracken MB, Dwight S (2014). Is animal research sufficiently evidence based to be a cornerstone of biomedical research? BMJ 348:g3387. doi:10.1136/bmj.g3387
  • Macleod M (2014). Some salt with your statin, Professor? PLOS Medicine 12(1): e1001768. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1001768
  • Macleod M, Michie S, Roberts I et al. (2014). Biomedical research: increasing value, reducing waste. The Lancet 383(9912):101-4. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(13)62329-6

2013

  • Anderson JA, Eijkholt M, Illes J (2013). Ethical reproducibility: towards transparent reporting in biomedical research. Nature Methods 10(9):843-845. doi:10.1038/nmeth.2564
  • Hooijmans CR, Ritskes-Hoitinga M (2013). Progress in using systematic reviews of animal studies to improve translational research. PLOS Medicine 10(7):e1001482. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001482
  • Khan MA (2013). Reporting animal research - arrival of 'ARRIVE'Pakistan Journal of Physiology 9(2). 
  • Rice ASC, Morland R, Huang W et al. (2013). Transparency in the reporting of in vivo pre-clinical pain research: The relevance and implications of the ARRIVE (Animal Research: Reporting In Vivo Experiments) guidelines. Scand J Pain 4(2): 58-62. doi:10.1016/j.sjpain.2013.02.002
  • Tilson HA, Schroeder JC (2013). Reporting of results from animal studies. Enivron Health Perspect 121: A320-A321. doi:10.1289/ehp.1307676
  • The PLOS Medicine Editors (2013). Translating translational research into global health gains. PLOS Medicine 10(7):e1001493. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001493 
  • The PLOS Medicine Editors (2013). Better reporting of scientific studies: Why it matters. PLOS Medicine 10(8):e1001504. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001504
  • Vasilevsky NA, Brush MH, Paddock H et al. (2013) On the reproducibility of science: unique identification of research resources in the biomedical literature. PeerJ 1:e148. doi:10.7717/peerj.148 
  • Vesterinen HM, Johnson PI, Koustas E et al. (2013) In support of EHP's proposal to adopt the ARRIVE guidelines. Environmental Health Perspectives 121(11-12):A325. doi:10.1289/ehp.130775

2012

  • Kilkenny C, Browne WJ, Cuthill IC et al. (2012). Improving Bioscience Research Reporting: The ARRIVE guidelines for reporting animal research. Veterinary Clinical Pathology 41(1):27-31 doi:10.1111/j.1939-165X.2012.00418.x
  • Percie du Sert N (2012). Maximising the output of osteoarthritis research: the ARRIVE guidelines. Osteoarthritis and Cartilage 20(4):253-255. doi:10.1016/j.joca.2011.12.017
  • Reynolds PS (2012). Twenty years after: Do animal trials inform clinical resuscitation research? Resuscitation 83(1):16-17. doi:10.1016/j.resuscitation.2011.10.020
  • Reynolds PS, Wall P, van Griensven, M et al. (2012) Shock supports the use of animal research reporting guidelines. Shock 38(1):1-3. doi:10.1097/SHK.0b013e31825f396c
  • The ‘3Is’ of animal experimentation. Nature Genetics 44(6):611. doi:10.1038/ng.2322

2011

  • Animal rights and wrongs. Nature 470(7335):435 doi:10.1038/470435a
  • Blomme EAG (2011) The ARRIVE guidelines: A resource for authors and reviewers to ensure that submissions to The Veterinary Journal meet minimal expectations of completeness, accuracy and transparency. The Veterinary Journal 189(3):237-238. doi:10.1016/j.tvjl.2011.07.008 
  • Hess KR (2011). Statistical design considerations in animal studies published recently in Cancer Research. Cancer Research 71(625). doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-10-3296
  • Percie du Sert N (2011). Improving the reporting of animal research: when will we ARRIVE? Disease Models and Mechanisms 4(3):281-282. doi:10.1242/dmm.007971
  • Percie du Sert N (2011). Systematic review and meta-analysis of pre-clinical research: the need for reporting guidelines” European Heart Journal 32(19):2333-2340. doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehr271
  • Siegel V (2011). Reproducibility in research. Disease Models and Mechanisms 4(3):279-280. doi:10.1242/dmm.008037

2010

  • Danos O, Davies K, Lehn P et al. (2010) The ARRIVE guidelines, a welcome improvement to standards for reporting animal research. Journal of Gene Medicine 12:559-560. doi:10.1002/jgm.147
  • Dirnagl U, Lauritzen M (2010). Improving the quality of biomedical research: Guidelines for reporting experiments involving animals. Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism 31:989-990. doi:10.1038/jcbfm.2010.219
  • ​Galley HF (2010). Mice, men and medicine. British Journal of Anaesthesia 105(4):396-400. doi:10.1093/bja/aeq256
  • Festing M (2010). Statistics and animals in biomedical research. Significance 7:176-177. doi:10.1111/j.1740-9713.2010.00459
  • Festing S (2010). Don’t waste lab animals. New Scientist 206(2763):22-23. doi:10.1016/S0262-4079(10)61370-X
  • MacCallum CJ (2010). Reporting Animal Studies: Good Science and a Duty of Care. PLOS Biology 8(6):e1000413 doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.100413
  • Kilkenny C, Browne WJ, Cuthill IC et al. (2010). Animal research: Reporting in vivo experiments: The ARRIVE guidelines. British Journal of Pharmacology 160(7):1577-1579 doi:10.1111/j.1476-5381.2010.00872.x
  • Kilkenny C, Browne WJ, Cuthill IC et al. (2010). Animal research: Reporting in vivo experiments: The ARRIVE guidelines. Experimental Physiology 95:842-844 doi:10.1113/expphysiol.2010.053793
  • Kilkenny C, Browne WJ, Cuthill IC et al. (2010). Animal research: Reporting in vivo experiments: The ARRIVE guidelines. Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism 31:991-993 doi:10.1038/jcbfm.2010.220
  • Kilkenny C, Browne WJ, Cuthill IC et al. (2010). Animal research: Reporting in vivo experiments: The ARRIVE guidelines. The Journal of Gene Medicine 12(7):561-563 doi:10.1002/jgm.1473
  • Kilkenny C, Browne WJ, Cuthill IC et al. (2010). Animal research: Reporting in vivo experiments: The ARRIVE guidelines. Journal of Pharmacology & Therapeutics 1(2):94-99 doi:10.4103/0976-500X.72351
  • Kilkenny C, Browne WJ, Cuthill IC et al. (2010). Animal research: Reporting in vivo experiments: The ARRIVE guidelines. The Journal of Physiology 588:2519-2521 doi:10.1113/jphysiol.2010.192278
  • Kilkenny C, Browne WJ, Cuthill IC et al. (2010). Animal research: Reporting in vivo experiments: The ARRIVE guidelines. Laboratory Animals 44(4):377-378 doi:10.1258/la.2010.0010021
  • Kilkenny C, Browne WJ, Cuthill IC et al. (2010). Animal research: Reporting in vivo experiments: The ARRIVE guidelines. Osteoarthritis and Cartilage 20(4):256-260 doi:10.1016/j.joca.2012.02.010
  • Kilkenny C, Browne WJ, Cuthill IC et al. (2010) Improving Bioscience Research Reporting: The ARRIVE Guidelines for Reporting Animal Research. PLoS Biology 8(6): e1000412 doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1000412
  • McGrath JC, Drummond GB, McLachlan EM et al. (2010) Guidelines for reporting experiments involving animals; the ARRIVE guidelines. British Journal of Pharmacology 160:1573-1576. doi:10.1111/j.1476-5381.2010.00873.x
  • Robinson V (2010). Make every animal experiment count. New Scientist 207(2767):3. doi: 10.1016/S0262-4079(10)61582-5
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