Routine husbandry and experimental procedures require laboratory animals to have frequent contact with humans. The handling and restraint required during procedures can evoke anxiety and stress in the animals, with accompanying changes in neurochemistry. Currently, the most common method for handling a mouse is to pick it up by the base of the tail, however Professor Hurst has demonstrated this method is aversive to mice causing both stress and anxiety1. Conversely, alternative handling methods such as running mice into a tunnel or scooping mice up on the hand (known as cupping) promote positive responses to human contact.
Why we funded it
This PhD Studentship aims to establish easily implemented practical handling approaches to promote the use of refined mouse handling methods and restraint procedures. The impact of these approaches on the performance of animals in behavioural experiments will also be established.
The majority of experimental procedures in the UK involve mice, with approximately 70% of all procedures recorded using mice. Approximately two million mice annually are used in procedures regulated by the Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act 1986 and recorded in the Home Office Statistics of Scientific Procedures on Living Animals. This estimate excludes animals used in non-regulated procedures.
Anxiety and stress are known to impact a broad range of behavioural and physiological responses, impairing animals in their ability to respond to stimuli or learn/solve specific tasks. Many of these responses are analysed in scientific research and testing, for example in behavioural tests. Any stressors, including handling and restraint, impacting on mouse behaviour can cause issues with reproducibility and variation within studies. In addition to establishing non-aversive methods of handling, this studentship will explore whether these approaches reduce variation in experiments likely to be influenced stress and anxiety responses.
1 Hurst JL, West RS (2010) Taming anxiety in laboratory mice. Nature Methods 7: (825-826). doi:10.1038/nmeth.1500
Gouveia K and Hurst JL (2019). Improving the practicality of using non-aversive handling methods to reduce background stress and anxiety in laboratory mice. Scientific Reports 9:e20305. doi:10.1038/s41598-019-56860-7
Gouveia K and Hurst JL (2017). Optimising reliability of mouse performance in behavioural testing: the major role of non-aversive handling. Scientific Reports 7:44999. doi: 10.1038/srep44999
Gouveia K and Hurst JL (2013). Reducing Mouse Anxiety during Handling: Effect of Experience with Handling Tunnels. PLoS ONE 8(6):e66401. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.006640
- News: Repeated immobilisation and subcutaneous injection do not reverse the positive effects of tunnel handling mice
- News: Results of mouse studies affected by the way the animals are handled
- News: Recommended techniques for handling lab mice to reduce anxiety
- News: New video tutorial released: mouse handling made easier
- Awards and Prizes: NC3Rs prize for advances in animal welfare, January 2011
- Resources: Mouse handling
- 2017 PhD Studentship Review: Case Study