The increased uptake and use of smaller blood volumes for sampling (microsampling) has the potential to refine and reduce animal use, particularly for toxicokinetics. We have identified the barriers to adoption through workshops and surveys of company practice. A working group has been set up to share data and experience, make evidence-based recommendations on best practice and inform changes in regulatory guidelines. We are currently developing a practical resource to disseminate study designs which reduce animal use and protocols which refine procedures.
Microsampling is currently used most in discovery and non-GLP toxicology studies. To maximise the 3Rs impact increased uptake in GLP regulatory toxicology studies is needed.