Mouse grimace scale

Read the original paper

Langford DJ, Bailey AL, Chanda ML et al. (2010). Coding of facial expressions of pain in the laboratory mouse. Nature Methods 7(6): 447-449. doi:10.1038/nmeth.1455

Read the original training manual

Mouse Grimace Scale (MGS): The Manual

Read papers that validate or use this technique

Matsumiya LS, Sorge RE, Sotocinal SG et al. (2012). Using the Mouse Grimace Scale to reevaluate the efficacy of postoperative analgesics in laboratory mice. Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science 51(1): 42-49. PMCID:PMC3276965

Leach MC, Klaus K, Miller AL et al. (2012). The assessment of post-vasectomy pain in mice using behaviour and the Mouse Grimace Scale. PLOS ONE 7(4): e35656. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0035656

Miller AL and Leach MC (2015). Using the Mouse Grimace Scale to assess pain associated with routine ear notching and the effect of analgesia in laboratory mice. Laboratory Animals 49(2): 117-120. doi:10.1177/0023677214559084

Miller AL and Leach MC (2015). The Mouse Grimace Scale: A clinically useful tool? PLOS ONE 10(9): e0136000. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0136000

Miller A, Kitson G, Skalkoyannis B et al. (2015). The effect of isoflurane anaesthesia and buprenorphine on the mouse grimace scale and behaviour in CBA and DBA/2 mice. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 172: 58-62. doi:10.1016/j.applanim.2015.08.038

Miller AL and Leach MC (2015). The effect of handling method on the mouse grimace scale in two strains of laboratory mice. Laboratory Animals 50(4): 305-7. doi:10.1177/0023677215622144

Faller KM, McAndrew DJ, Schneider JE et al. (2015). Refinement of analgesia following thoracotomy and experimental myocardial infarction using the Mouse Grimace Scale. Experimental Physiology 100(2): 164-172. doi:10.1113/expphysiol.2014.083139

Roughan JV, Bertrand HG and Isles HM (2015). Meloxicam prevents COX-2-mediated post-surgical inflammation but not pain following laparotomy in mice. European Journal of Pain 20(2): 231-40. doi:10.1002/ejp.712

Kim JY, Tillu DV, Quinn TL et al. (2015). Spinal dopaminergic projections control the transition to pathological pain plasticity via a D1/D5-mediated mechanism. Journal of Neuroscience 35(16): 6307-6317. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3481-14.2015

Bu X, Liu Y, Lu Q et al. (2015). Effects of “danzhi decoction” on chronic pelvic pain, hemodynamics, and proinflammatory factors in the murine model of sequelae of pelvic inflammatory disease. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2015: 547251. doi:10.1155/2015/547251

Mittal A, Gupta M, Lamarre Y et al. (2016). Quantification of pain in sickle mice using facial expressions and body measurements. Blood, cells, molecules and diseases 57: 58-66. doi:10.1016/j.bcmd.2015.12.006

Wu J, Zhao Z, Zhu X et al. (2016). Cell cycle inhibition limits development and maintenance of neuropathic pain following spinal cord injury. Pain 157(2): 488-503. doi:10.1097/j.pain.0000000000000393

Miller AL, Kitson GL, Skalkoyannis B et al. (2016). Using the mouse grimace scale and behaviour to assess pain in CBA mice following vasectomy. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 181: 160-165. doi:10.1016/j.applanim.2016.05.020

Allweiler SI (2016). How to improve anesthesia and analgesia in small mammals. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Exotic Animal Practice 19(2): 361-377. doi:10.1016/j.cvex.2016.01.012

Duffy SS, Perera CJ, Makker PG et al. (2016). Peripheral and central neuroinflammatory changes and pain behaviors in an animal model of multiple sclerosis. Frontiers in Immunology 7: 369. doi:10.3389/fimmu.2016.00369

Hassan AM, Jain P, Mayerhofer R et al. (2017). Visceral hyperalgesia caused by peptide YY deletion and Y2 receptor antagonism. Scientific Reports 7: 40968. doi:10.1038/srep40968

Zhu Y, Wang S, Long H et al. (2017). Effect of static magnetic field on pain level and expression of P2X3 receptors in the trigeminal ganglion in mice following experimental tooth movement. Bioelectromagnetics 38(1): 22-30. doi:10.1002/bem.22009

Hohlbaum K, Bert B, Dietze S et al. (2017). Severity classification of repeated isoflurane anesthesia in C57BL/6JRj mice: Assessing the degree of distress. PLoS ONE 12(6): e0179588. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0179588

Wang S, Lim J, Joseph J et al. (2017). Spontaneous and bite-evoked muscle pain are mediated by a common nociceptive pathway with differential contribution by TRPV1. The Journal of Pain 18(11): 1333-1345. doi:10.1016/j.jpain.2017.06.005

Akintola T, Raver C, Studlack P et al. (2017). The grimace scale reliably assesses chronic pain in a rodent model of trigeminal neuropathic pain. Neurobiology of Pain 2: 13-17. doi:10.1016/j.ynpai.2017.10.001

Tuttle AH, Molinaro MJ, Jethwa JF et al. (2018). A deep neural network to assess spontaneous pain from mouse facial expressions. Molecular Pain 14: 1744806918763658. doi:10.1177/1744806918763658

Hohlbaum K, Bert B, Dietze S et al. (2018). Systematic assessment of well-being in mice for procedures using general anesthesia. Journal of Visualized Experiments 20(133). doi:10.3791/57046

Wang S, Brigoli B, Lim J et al. (2018). Roles of TRPV1 and TRPA1 in spontaneous pain from inflamed masseter muscle. Neuroscience 384: 290-299 doi:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2018.05.048

Dalla Costa E, Pascuzzo R, Leach MC et al. (2018). Can grimace scales estimate the pain status in horses and mice? A statistical approach to identify a classifier. PLOS ONE 13(8): e0200339. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0200339

de Almeida AS, Rigo FK, De Prá SD et al. (2019). Role of transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) on nociception caused by a murine model of breast carcinoma. Pharmacological Research 104576. doi:10.1016/j.phrs.2019.104576

Jirkof P, Abdelrahman A, Bleich A et al. (2019). A safe bet? Inter-laboratory variability in behaviour-based severity assessment. Laboratory Animals 23677219881481. doi:10.1177/0023677219881481

Ernst L, Kopaczka M, Schulz M et al. (2019). Semi-automated generation of pictures for the Mouse Grimace Scale: A multi-laboratory analysis (Part 2). Laboratory Animals 23677219881664. doi:10.1177/0023677219881664

Ernst L, Kopaczka M, Schulz M et al. (2019). Improvement of the Mouse Grimace Scale set-up for implementing a semi-automated Mouse Grimace Scale scoring (Part 1). Laboratory Animals 23677219881655. doi:10.1177/0023677219881655

Wang S, Kim M, Ali Z et al. (2019). TRPV1 and TRPV1-expressing nociceptors mediate orofacial pain behaviors in a mouse model of orthodontic tooth movement. Frontiers of Physiology 10: 1207. doi:10.3389/fphys.2019.01207

Sarfaty AE, Zeiss CJ, Willis AD et al. (2019). Concentration-dependent toxicity after subcutaneous administration of meloxicam to C57BL/6N mice (Mus musculus). Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science 58(6): 802-809. doi:10.30802/AALAS-JAALAS-19-000037

Serizawa K, Tomizawa-Shinohara H, Yasuno H et al. (2019). Anti-IL-6 receptor antibody inhibits spontaneous pain at the pre-onset of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in mice. Frontiers of Neurology 10: 341. doi:10.3389/fneur.2019.00341

de Almeida AS, Rigo FK, De Prá SD et al. (2019). Characterization of cancer-induced nociception in a murine model of breast carcinoma. Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology 39(5): 605-617. doi:10.1007/s10571-019-00666-8

Roughan JV and Sevenoaks T (2019). Welfare and scientific considerations of tattooing and ear tagging for mouse identification. Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science 58(2): 142-153. doi:10.30802/AALAS-JAALAS-18-000057

Guo W, Zou S, Mohammad Z et al. (2019). Voluntary biting behavior as a functional measure of orofacial pain in mice. Physiology and Behavior 204: 129-139. doi:10.1016/j.physbeh.2019.02.024

Herrera C, Bolton F, Arias AS et al. (2019). Analgesic effect of morphine and tramadol in standard toxicity assays in mice injected with venom of the snake Bothrops asper. Toxicon 154: 35-41. doi:10.1016/j.toxicon.2018.09.012

Hohlbaum K, Bert B, Dietze S et al. (2019). Impact of repeated anesthesia with ketamine and xylazine on the well-being of C57BL/6JRj mice. PLoS One 13(9): e0203559. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0203559

Mai SHC, Sharma N, Kwong AC et al. (2019). Body temperature and mouse scoring systems as surrogate markers of death in cecal ligation and puncture sepsis. Intensive Care Medicine Experimental 6(1): 20. doi:10.1186/s40635-018-0184-3

Wang S, Brigoli B, Lim J et al. (2019). Roles of TRPV1 and TRPA1 in spontaneous pain from inflamed masseter muscle. Neuroscience 384: 290-299. doi:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2018.05.048

Serizawa K, Tomizawa-Shinohara H, Yasuno H et al. (2019). Anti-IL-6 receptor antibody inhibits spontaneous pain at the pre-onset of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in mice. Frontiers in Neurology 10: 341. doi:10.3389/fneur.2019.00341

Guo W, Zou S, Mohammad Z et al. (2019). Voluntary biting behaviour as a functional measure of orofacial pain in mice. Physiology and behaviour 204: 129-139. doi:10.1016/j.physbeh.2019.02.024

Cho C, Michailidis V, Lecker I et al. (2019). Evaluating analgesic efficacy and administration route following craniotomy in mice using the grimace scale. Scientific Reports 9(1): 359. doi:10.1038/s41598-018-36897-w

Wang S, Kim M, Ali Z et al. (2019). TRPV1 and TRPV1-expressing nociceptors mediate orofacial pain behaviours in a mouse model of orthodontic tooth movement. Frontiers in Physiology 10: 1207. doi:10.3389/fphys.2019.01207