ARRIVE: Animal Research Reporting In Vivo Experiments

The ARRIVE (Animal Research: Reporting of In Vivo Experiments) guidelines are intended to improve the reporting of research using animals – maximising information published and minimising unnecessary studies.

Background

The ARRIVE guidelines were developed as part of an NC3Rs initiative to improve standards of reporting and ensure that the data from animal experiments can be fully evaluated and utilised. The guidelines are aimed primarily at scientists writing up their research for publication and for those who are involved in peer review.

The guidelines were initially published in the online journal PLOS Biology in June 2010 and are currently endorsed by scientific journals, funding bodies, universities and learned societies. Developed in consultation with the scientific community, including researchers, statisticians, journal editors and funders, the original guidelines consisted of a 20-point checklist of the essential information that should be included in publications reporting animal research.

Previous work by the NC3Rs showed that many publications reporting publicly-funded animal research from the UK and US lacked key information on how the study was designed, conducted and analysed, which could limit their value in informing future scientific studies and policy.

The ARRIVE guidelines have recently been revised. The new guidelines – ARRIVE 2.0 – were released in July 2020.

More information about the ARRIVE guidelines, including resources and information on how journals, funders, institutions and other organisations can use and promote the guidelines, is available at www.ARRIVEguidelines.org.

Publications related to the ARRIVE guidelines 2.0, updated in 2020, can be found on the ARRIVE guidelines website.

Publications and editorials mentioning the original ARRIVE guidelines:

2019

  • Bauer TW, Bechtold JE, Swiontkowski MF (2019). JBJS will require adherence to ARRIVE guidelines for animal research to reduce bias and improve quality of reporting. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 101(21): 1891-3. doi: 10.2106/JBJS.19.01001
  • Hair K, Macleod MR, Sena ES, IICARus Collaboration (2019). A randomised controlled trial of an Intervention to Improve Compliance with the ARRIVE guidelines (IICARus). Research Integrity and Peer Review 4: 12. doi: 10.1186/s41073-019-0069-3

2017

  • Munafò MR, Nosek BA, Bishop DVM, et al. (2017). A manifesto for reproducible science. Nature Human Behaviour. doi:10.1038/s41562-016-0021

2016

  • Vogt L, Reichlin TS, Nathues C, Würbel H (2016). Authorization of Animal Experiments Is Based on Confidence Rather than Evidence of Scientific Rigor. PLOS Biology. doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.2000598
  • Reichlin TS, Vogt L, Würbel H (2016). The Researchers’ View of Scientific Rigor—Survey on the Conduct and Reporting of In Vivo Research. PLOS One. doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0165999
  • Avey M, Moher D, Sullivan KJ, et al. (2016). The Devil Is in the Details: Incomplete Reporting in Preclinical Animal Research. PLOS One. doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0166733
  • Cressey D (2016). Surge in support for animal-research guidelines. Nature. doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.19274
  • Eisenach JC, Warner DS, Houle TT (2016). Reporting of preclinical research in Anesthesiology: transparency and enforcement. Anesthesiology. 124: 763-765. doi: 10.1097/ALN.0000000000001044
  • Flórez-Vargas O, Brass A, Karystianis G et al. (2016). Bias in the reporting of sex and age in biomedical research on mouse models. eLife. 10.7554/eLife.13615. doi: 10.7554/eLife.13615
  • Holman C, Piper SK, Grittner U et al. (2016). Where have all the rodents gone? The effects of attrition in experimental research on cancer and stroke. PLOS Biology 14(1):e1002331. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.100233

2015

  • Begley GC, Buchan AM, Dirnagl U (2015). Robust research: Institutions must do their part for reproducibility. Nature 525, 25-27. doi:10.1038/525025a
  • Curtis MJ, Abernethy DR (2015). Revision of instructions to authors for pharmacology research and perspectives: enhancing the quality and transparency of published work. Pharmacology Research & Perspectives 3(2): e00106. doi:10.1002/prp2.106
  • Galiando L, Troncoso I, Ureña D et al. (2015). Guidelines ARRIVE review, in Chilean scientific journal articles, indexed in Thomson Reuters, that use animal experimentation, in vivo, between years 2010 and 2012. Acta Bioethica 21(1): 103-108. doi: 10.4067/S1726-569X2015000100013
  • Hutchinson TH, Burden N (2015). In Response: Benefits of the ARRIVE guidelines for improving scientific reporting in ecotoxicology - An academic perspective. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 34(11): 2446-2448. doi: 10.1002/etc.3111
  • Karp NA, Meehan TF, Morgan H et al. (2015). Applying the ARRIVE Guidelines to an In Vivo Database. PLOS Biology 13(5): e1002151. doi: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1002151
  • McGrath JC, McLachlan EM, Zeller R (2015). Transparency in Research involving Animals: The Basel Declaration and new principles for reporting research in BJP manuscripts. British Journal of Pharmacology 172(10): 2427-2432. doi:10.1111/bph.12956
  • McGrath JC, Curtis MJ (2015). BJP is changing its requirements for scientific papers to increase transparency. British Journal of Pharmacology 172(11):2671-2674. doi:10.1111/bph.12954
  • Moher D, Avey M, Antes G et al. (2015). The National Institutes of Health and guidance for reporting preclinical research. BMC Medicine 13:34. doi:10.1186/s12916-015-0284-9
  • Scudamore CL, Soilleux EJ, Karp NA et al. (2015). Recommendations for minimum information for publication of experimental pathology data: MINPEPA Guidelines. The Journal of Pathology. doi:10.1002/path4642 
  • Ting KHJ, Hill CL, Whittle SL (2015). Quality of reporting of interventional animal studies in rheumatology: a systematic review using the ARRIVE guidelines. International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases 18(5): 488-494. doi:10.1111/1756-185X.12699
  • Numbers matter. Nature 520, 263-264. doi:10.1038/520263b

2014

  • Bailoo JD, Reichlin TS, Würbel (2014). Refinement of experimental design and conduct in laboratory animal research. ILAR J 55(3): 383-391. doi:10.1093/ilar/ilu037 
  • Baker D, Lidster K, Sottomayor A et al. (2014). Two years later: Journals are not yet enforcing the ARRIVE guidelines on reporting standards for pre-clinical animal studies. PLOS Biology 12(1):e1001756. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1001756
  • Burdge GC (2014). Improving standards for reporting studies involving humans and experimental animals in the British Journal of Nutrition and in the Journal of Nutritional ScienceBritish Journal of Nutrition 112(9): 1423-1424. doi:10.1017/S0007114514002372
  • Eisen JA, Ganley E, MacCallum CJ (2014). Open science and reporting animal studies: who's accountable? PLOS Biology 12(1):e1001757 doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1001757
  • Hirst JA, Howick J, Aronson JK et al. (2014). The need for randomisation in animal trials: an overview of systematic reviews. PLOS One 9(6):e98856. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0098856 
  • Kilkenny C, Browne WJ, Cuthill IC et al. (2014). Improving bioscience research reporting: the ARRIVE guidelines for reporting animal research. Animals 4(1):35-44 doi:10.3390/ani4010035 
  • Pearson J (2014). Use of animals in research and reporting of animal experiments - The need for improvement. Vascular Pharmacology 62(1):1-2. doi:10.1016/j.vph.2014.05.009
  • Pound P, Bracken MB, Dwight S (2014). Is animal research sufficiently evidence based to be a cornerstone of biomedical research? BMJ 348:g3387. doi:10.1136/bmj.g3387
  • Macleod M (2014). Some salt with your statin, Professor? PLOS Medicine 12(1): e1001768. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1001768
  • Macleod M, Michie S, Roberts I et al. (2014). Biomedical research: increasing value, reducing waste. The Lancet 383(9912):101-4. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(13)62329-6

2013

  • Anderson JA, Eijkholt M, Illes J (2013). Ethical reproducibility: towards transparent reporting in biomedical research. Nature Methods 10(9):843-845. doi:10.1038/nmeth.2564
  • Hooijmans CR, Ritskes-Hoitinga M (2013). Progress in using systematic reviews of animal studies to improve translational research. PLOS Medicine 10(7):e1001482. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001482
  • Khan MA (2013). Reporting animal research - arrival of 'ARRIVE'Pakistan Journal of Physiology 9(2). 
  • Rice ASC, Morland R, Huang W et al. (2013). Transparency in the reporting of in vivo pre-clinical pain research: The relevance and implications of the ARRIVE (Animal Research: Reporting In Vivo Experiments) guidelines. Scand J Pain 4(2): 58-62. doi:10.1016/j.sjpain.2013.02.002
  • Tilson HA, Schroeder JC (2013). Reporting of results from animal studies. Enivron Health Perspect 121: A320-A321. doi:10.1289/ehp.1307676
  • The PLOS Medicine Editors (2013). Translating translational research into global health gains. PLOS Medicine 10(7):e1001493. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001493 
  • The PLOS Medicine Editors (2013). Better reporting of scientific studies: Why it matters. PLOS Medicine 10(8):e1001504. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001504
  • Vasilevsky NA, Brush MH, Paddock H et al. (2013) On the reproducibility of science: unique identification of research resources in the biomedical literature. PeerJ 1:e148. doi:10.7717/peerj.148 
  • Vesterinen HM, Johnson PI, Koustas E et al. (2013) In support of EHP's proposal to adopt the ARRIVE guidelines. Environmental Health Perspectives 121(11-12):A325. doi:10.1289/ehp.130775

2012

  • Kilkenny C, Browne WJ, Cuthill IC et al. (2012). Improving Bioscience Research Reporting: The ARRIVE guidelines for reporting animal research. Veterinary Clinical Pathology 41(1):27-31 doi:10.1111/j.1939-165X.2012.00418.x
  • Percie du Sert N (2012). Maximising the output of osteoarthritis research: the ARRIVE guidelines. Osteoarthritis and Cartilage 20(4):253-255. doi:10.1016/j.joca.2011.12.017
  • Reynolds PS (2012). Twenty years after: Do animal trials inform clinical resuscitation research? Resuscitation 83(1):16-17. doi:10.1016/j.resuscitation.2011.10.020
  • Reynolds PS, Wall P, van Griensven, M et al. (2012) Shock supports the use of animal research reporting guidelines. Shock 38(1):1-3. doi:10.1097/SHK.0b013e31825f396c
  • The ‘3Is’ of animal experimentation. Nature Genetics 44(6):611. doi:10.1038/ng.2322

2011

  • Animal rights and wrongs. Nature 470(7335):435 doi:10.1038/470435a
  • Blomme EAG (2011) The ARRIVE guidelines: A resource for authors and reviewers to ensure that submissions to The Veterinary Journal meet minimal expectations of completeness, accuracy and transparency. The Veterinary Journal 189(3):237-238. doi:10.1016/j.tvjl.2011.07.008 
  • Hess KR (2011). Statistical design considerations in animal studies published recently in Cancer Research. Cancer Research 71(625). doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-10-3296
  • Percie du Sert N (2011). Improving the reporting of animal research: when will we ARRIVE? Disease Models and Mechanisms 4(3):281-282. doi:10.1242/dmm.007971
  • Percie du Sert N (2011). Systematic review and meta-analysis of pre-clinical research: the need for reporting guidelines” European Heart Journal 32(19):2333-2340. doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehr271
  • Siegel V (2011). Reproducibility in research. Disease Models and Mechanisms 4(3):279-280. doi:10.1242/dmm.008037

2010

  • Danos O, Davies K, Lehn P et al. (2010) The ARRIVE guidelines, a welcome improvement to standards for reporting animal research. Journal of Gene Medicine 12:559-560. doi:10.1002/jgm.147
  • Dirnagl U, Lauritzen M (2010). Improving the quality of biomedical research: Guidelines for reporting experiments involving animals. Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism 31:989-990. doi:10.1038/jcbfm.2010.219
  • ​Galley HF (2010). Mice, men and medicine. British Journal of Anaesthesia 105(4):396-400. doi:10.1093/bja/aeq256
  • Festing M (2010). Statistics and animals in biomedical research. Significance 7:176-177. doi:10.1111/j.1740-9713.2010.00459
  • Festing S (2010). Don’t waste lab animals. New Scientist 206(2763):22-23. doi:10.1016/S0262-4079(10)61370-X
  • MacCallum CJ (2010). Reporting Animal Studies: Good Science and a Duty of Care. PLOS Biology 8(6):e1000413 doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.100413
  • Kilkenny C, Browne WJ, Cuthill IC et al. (2010). Animal research: Reporting in vivo experiments: The ARRIVE guidelines. British Journal of Pharmacology 160(7):1577-1579 doi:10.1111/j.1476-5381.2010.00872.x
  • Kilkenny C, Browne WJ, Cuthill IC et al. (2010). Animal research: Reporting in vivo experiments: The ARRIVE guidelines. Experimental Physiology 95:842-844 doi:10.1113/expphysiol.2010.053793
  • Kilkenny C, Browne WJ, Cuthill IC et al. (2010). Animal research: Reporting in vivo experiments: The ARRIVE guidelines. Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism 31:991-993 doi:10.1038/jcbfm.2010.220
  • Kilkenny C, Browne WJ, Cuthill IC et al. (2010). Animal research: Reporting in vivo experiments: The ARRIVE guidelines. The Journal of Gene Medicine 12(7):561-563 doi:10.1002/jgm.1473
  • Kilkenny C, Browne WJ, Cuthill IC et al. (2010). Animal research: Reporting in vivo experiments: The ARRIVE guidelines. Journal of Pharmacology & Therapeutics 1(2):94-99 doi:10.4103/0976-500X.72351
  • Kilkenny C, Browne WJ, Cuthill IC et al. (2010). Animal research: Reporting in vivo experiments: The ARRIVE guidelines. The Journal of Physiology 588:2519-2521 doi:10.1113/jphysiol.2010.192278
  • Kilkenny C, Browne WJ, Cuthill IC et al. (2010). Animal research: Reporting in vivo experiments: The ARRIVE guidelines. Laboratory Animals 44(4):377-378 doi:10.1258/la.2010.0010021
  • Kilkenny C, Browne WJ, Cuthill IC et al. (2010). Animal research: Reporting in vivo experiments: The ARRIVE guidelines. Osteoarthritis and Cartilage 20(4):256-260 doi:10.1016/j.joca.2012.02.010
  • Kilkenny C, Browne WJ, Cuthill IC et al. (2010) Improving Bioscience Research Reporting: The ARRIVE Guidelines for Reporting Animal Research. PLoS Biology 8(6): e1000412 doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1000412
  • McGrath JC, Drummond GB, McLachlan EM et al. (2010) Guidelines for reporting experiments involving animals; the ARRIVE guidelines. British Journal of Pharmacology 160:1573-1576. doi:10.1111/j.1476-5381.2010.00873.x
  • Robinson V (2010). Make every animal experiment count. New Scientist 207(2767):3. doi: 10.1016/S0262-4079(10)61582-5
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